The “So you need a typeface?” flowchart is taken from here from designer Julian Hansen. Click to enlarge.
It’s a fun graphic, but alas! There is no “research poster” starting point. Either “infographic” or “newspaper” might be good starting points if you want to try it for your poster.
P.S. – If in doubt, use Helvetica. And not that Arial knock-off, either; Helvetica.